Peter, some dispute, was just another disciple, no different to any one else. Others some might say that he was the first among equals, he was after all the first to speak up when Jesus asked a question. What made him so special? Lets have a look at some significant scripture verses that support the catholic position of Peter being the leader Jesus intended him to be.
Key Moments in History
Luke 5:8 is significant because Simon is called Peter for the first time in Luke’s gospel. Luke structures this passage like those in the Old Testament. First a person is named twice. Look at Genesis 22:11 where God calls out “Abraham, Abraham” just as he’s about to sacrifice Isaac, or Exodus 3:4 where we see “Moses, Moses” in front of the burning bush. Another New Testament reference is found in Acts 9:4. This is the infamous road to Damascus where Saul is converted to Christianity through the words of Jesus, “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?”
Another thing that happens in this passage (returning to Luke 5:8) is that Simon’s name is changed to Peter, drawing on Matt 16:18. Again from the Old Testament we see a name change with Jacob to Israel in Genesis 35:10, and with Abram to Abraham in Genesis 17:5 (and Sarai to Sarah), none of which appeared in scripture before God uttered their names.
Note that these events mark significant change in the history of Israel – the promise of a nation (Abraham); the beginning of the fulfillment of a covenant (Sarah bears Isaac); the test of fidelity (Isaac’s sacrifice); the start of the promised nation (Israel); the freeing of a nation (Moses). Could the same significance be given to Simon Peter?
Another scriptural connection is the recognition of the divine name by way of falling on the ground. We see this, for instance, in the same passage as Abraham’s renaming when he falls to the ground in Genesis 17:3 after recognizing the divine presence of God.
Promises to Peter Alone
There are promises that Jesus made to Peter alone: four in the marquee (and already referenced) Matt 16:18-19 – 1) “You are Peter and on this rock I will build my church”; 2) “the gates of hell will not prevail against it”; and 3) “I will give you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven”; 4) “whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven”. This last one was also extended to all discples later. Much has been written on all these but allow me to draw some things to your attention.
First, Jesus’s church was not built on anyone else but on Simon Peter. Incidentally, this is the only time we see the two named Simon Peter in the gospel of Matthew. (Another key moment in history?)
Secondly, the gates of hell words were spoken to him alone. The church founded on him contains gates that no evil will overcome. It reminds me of the prophecy of Jeremiah (15:20). Jeremiah in his distress calls out to God. God promised that Jeremiah will be as a fortified gate of bronze that will prevail against the evils of the world. I don’t think it is too long a bow to draw a comparison between Jeremiah and Peter, but perhaps it is.
Next, the third promise, we see the giving of the keys to the kingdom. Drawing from the Davidic kingdom in which Eliakim is given the keys to the kingdom (Isaiah 22:20-22) Peter here is also given a different set of keys to a different kind of kingdom. There is a clear significance of authority given to the one to held the key. That significance is still recognized today in Peter.
Lastly, from as early as Numbers 3:1-2 Moses relays what God has stated about the significance of binding something, that it is an oath or a vow. Like things, words can also be bound to a person, and by a person. Here Peter is that person. Additionally the gospel was written in Greek, and the Greek language, similarly to English, has tenses though somewhat differently. The tense in this phrase means from now on; it is an open ended statement without limitation. This is essentially like giving Peter a blank cheque. Whatever you bind…
As well the promises given to Peter there are commands that were given only to him. These two are “strengthen the brethren” (Luke 22:32) and “feed my sheep” (John 21:17). It seems to me quite perculiar that Peter alone was given these commands. Surely all the brethren should strengthen each other, there is strength in numbers (11:6) after all (just a little joke; look it up!). Likewise, feed my sheep – which clearly doesn’t refer to real sheep and real food – but the spiritual support of the flock of Jesus: those who hear his voice and follow him (John 10:27). But Peter has been singled out for this command. It just doesn’t make sense. Unless, of course, his role was different to those of the other apostles. And as the leader, his role was different.
Here I’ll just list a few things. Suffice to say that Peter did many firsts in the church.
🔹Peter initiated the election of the first apostolic successor (Acts 1:15-17)
🔹Peter preached the first sermon after Pentecost (Acts 2:14-36)
🔹Afterwards, Peter received the first Jewish converts (Acts 2:41)
🔹Peter performed the first miracle (Acts 3:6-7)
🔹Peter inflicted the first punishment (Acts 5:1-11)
🔹Peter excommunicated the first heretic (Acts 8:21)
🔹Peter was the first apostle to raise someone from the dead (Acts 9:36-41)
🔹Peter received the revelation to admit Gentiles into the church (Acts 10:9-16)
🔹Peter first recieved Gentiles into the church (Acts 10:44-48)
🔹And finally, Peter made the first decisive act at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:7-11)
While there may not be one single scripture reference that states out rightly that Peter is the leader of the church (though many rely on Matt 16:18-19 and its interpretation) these lesser known ones begin to build a strong case, built on Rock. To those who say Peter was not THAT important, I say that Jesus thought he was, and the early church continued to respect his authority; as does the Catholic Church. In light of apostolic succession (Acts 1:15-17) we still have a Peter with us today.